The intelligence review of alleged misdeeds carried out by Russia, for example, its interference in elections and the SolarWinds hack, has been completed by officials of the Biden administration.

The actions the Biden administration may take will include the expulsion of officers of the Russian intelligence in the USA and sanctions.

These sanctions will single out individuals close to Vladimir Putin and agencies related to interference in US elections. Biden and officials of the administration will have to weigh how hard to punish the Russian Federation.

Nevertheless, the US administration has a lot of willingness to hold Russia to account for its adversarial and reckless actions. Any measure Joseph Biden will take will aim to establish effective deterrence against future cyber attacks carried out by Russia.